History: Evolution of Nigeria constitution 1914 to 1999

Since its independence in , Nigeria has struggled unsuccessfully to clearly articulate the relationship between religion and the state. Whereas the British colonialists seemingly bequeathed to the new nation-state a secular regime at independence, the internal contradictions, which, paradoxically were propagated by the colonial authority, incubated to pose a challenge to the new state soon thereafter. This article therefore seeks to situate the legal and constitutional frontiers of state—religion relations in Nigeria. It is intent on delineating the conceptual boundary between religion and politics, while evaluating the impact of the current relationship on national security. The article advocates for a moderate secular regime—by whatever name—that is constitutionally defined and institutionalized. Most users should sign in with their email address. If you originally registered with a username please use that to sign in.

Nigeria: IALS Library Guides

The current economic problem in our nation is often lamented and cursed as unendurable, as if it is peculiar to the nation alone. Similarly, the fiscal measures introduced by the government are looked upon as hindrances or impediments, which a few may consider as irrelevant and unnecessary impositions. Yet, to look back at our growing up problems as if they are burdens, which we must cast off immediately, or run away from, is to be superficial and incapable of understanding ourselves, an offshoot of our character.

The Nigerian economy, whether advancing or otherwise, is the weight that we must bear in our growth towards maturity, and in coming into full being as adults and as a nation. A mother does not complain of the weight of the child she carries on her back.

The paper traces the origin of Nigerian federalism to colonial insinuations of conquest and divide and rule. Ever since to date, the structure of Nigerian federalism has dramatically Kanem-Borno Empire, with known history of (​Crowther, and Ibezute, ). The early pre-independence constitutional.

On June 8, , General Sani Abacha, the military leader who took power in Nigeria in , died of a reported heart attack and was replaced by General Abdulsalam Abubakar. General Abubakar released political prisoners and initiated political, economic, and social reforms. Relations between the United States and Nigeria improved with the subsequent transfer of power to a civilian government.

Nigeria continues to make progress in strengthening its fragile democracy but faces serious economic challenges. Nigeria remains relatively stable, although ethnic and religious clashes in some parts of the country have led to massive displacement of civilian populations. Topic Areas About Donate. Download PDF. Download EPUB. On July 7, , Moshood Abiola, the believed winner of the presidential election, also died of a heart attack during a meeting with U.

He also established a new independent electoral commission and outlined a schedule for elections and transition to civilian rule, pledging to hand over power to an elected civilian government by May

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The impact of religion on a secular state: the Nigerian experience. Nigeria, in her 55 years of nationhood, is the most populated black nation in the world. She has to her credit a written Constitution being operated for the effective democratic governance of her population, comprising peoples of different religious freedom and cultural backgrounds. In Nigeria, Christianity, Islam and traditional religions are most widely practised.

Religion is a faith-based process that is capable of impacting on governance and the behavioural attitudes of every believer.

human development in Nigeria, which suffers a low gross domestic product Through most of its history, Nigeria’s economy has woefully motivations discussed in this monograph and would constitution and again in the 19constitu- tions dating back to the s and giving local officials great power.

Lagos remained the capital of the south, with Zungeru the new capital of the north. On January 1, , following the recommendations of Sir Frederick Lugard , the two protectorates were amalgamated to form the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria under a single governor-general resident in Lagos. Between and the title reverted to governor. Native institutions were utilized and interference with local customs kept to a minimum, although the British did not always understand the local customs.

Many changes accompanied British rule: Western education, the English language , and Christianity spread during the period; new forms of money, transportation, and communication were developed; and the Nigerian economy became based on the export of cash crops. Areas with lucrative crops such as cacao and peanuts groundnuts profited, while many people in different parts of the country had to migrate to work elsewhere as tenant farmers or use their newly acquired education and skills to work in cities as wage earners, traders, and artisans.

Two tiers of government emerged, central and local. The central government, presided over by the governor-general and accountable to the secretary for the colonies in London, was more powerful but distant from the people. Local administration, where the colonial citizens typically experienced colonial authority, was based on the policy of indirect rule first developed in the north. To prevent any united opposition to its authority, the British adopted a divide-and-rule policy, keeping Nigerian groups separate from one another as much as possible.

Traditional authorities were co-opted in the north, where the spread of Western education by Christian missionaries was strongly resisted by Muslim leaders. In the south the British occasionally created a political hierarchy where there had been none before; in most cases they ruled through those who were most malleable , whether these people had held traditional positions of authority or not.

Because Western education and Christianity spread rapidly in the south and not in the north, development was much slower in the north, and the growing disparity between north and south later caused political tensions. Further dislocation accompanied the outbreak of World War I.

Nigeria: Nine constitutions in 24 years of democracy!

Since it gained independence from Britain in , however, it has been plagued by political instability and economic problems. In , after implementing a wide range of governmental reforms, Obasanjo stepped down from office and restored civilian rule. In doing so, he became the only Nigerian military leader to voluntarily hand power to a democratically-elected government.

two events in history: its amalgamation in and the events surrounding till date, to new civilian governments is a testament to the resilience of Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) between and. , the experience. We have to sit down and discuss.” the political development of Nigeria’s constitutional.

Corruption is notoriously persistent in Nigeria notwithstanding the panoply of laws deployed over the years against it. This article argues that the factors constraining the effectiveness of laws in the fight against corruption are to be found not in the laws, but in the larger societal matrix of resilient social norms and institutions, which constitute the environment of corruption in the country. The environment thus constituted is either conducive to, or largely tolerant of, corruption.

The article then suggests that the anti-corruption effort, to be successful, must engage broadly with the environment by instigating social change. This article will examine the role of social norms and the law in the anti-corruption struggle of Nigeria in recent times. Nigerians often conclude that, given their abundance of natural endowments, the massive scale of poverty among the bulk of their population cannot be explained but by the ravages of corruption. They also accept that combating corruption is bound to be a daunting, perhaps insuperable, challenge given its entrenchment.

The following questions are central to this inquiry: what is the environment of corruption in Nigeria? What counts as corruption in the value acceptances of Nigerians? Why is corruption so resilient and persistent in Nigeria?

Chronology for Ijaw in Nigeria

Researching Ghanaian Law. Victor Essien holds LL. Hons , LL. Ghana , LL. NYU degrees. He was admitted to the Ghana Bar in

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“Everyone’s in on the Game”

With the merger of Exxon and Mobil in , the newly formed Exxon Mobil Corporation brought together a shared history that dates back over years to their origins as part of the Standard Oil family of companies. By , the Trust had amassed companies responsible for all aspects of the petroleum industry — exploration, production, refining, transportation and marketing — creating a vertically integrated organization.

Congress’s passage of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act of , however, which aimed to ensure fair competition in interstate commerce and to eliminate monopolies, eventually led to the dissolution of the Trust in

a historical, geodetical, political and constitutional perspective. In discussing Article 81 of the Namibian Constitution, Francois “Offshore finance in southern Africa”. In Hampton, Mark & J Abbott Great Britain declared war on Germany in August date of the Independence of Namibia.

See others. Discover in a free daily email today’s famous history and birthdays Enjoy the Famous Daily. Search the whole site. Historic regions: 5th century BC – 20th century. Nigeria contains more historic cultures and empires than any other other nation in Africa. They date back as far as the 5th century BC, when communities living around the southern slopes of the Jos plateau make wonderfully expressive terracotta figures – in a tradition known now as the Nok culture , from the Nigerian village where these sculptures are first unearthed.

The Nok people are neolithic tribes who have recently acquired the iron technology spreading southwards through Africa. The Jos plateau is in the centre of Nigeria, but the first extensive kingdoms of the region – more than a millennium after the Nok people – are in the north and northeast, deriving their wealth from trade north through the Sahara and east into the Sudan.

During the 9th centurya trading empire grows up around Lake Chad. Its original centre is east of the lake, in the Kanem region, but it soon extends to Bornu on the western side. In the 11th century the ruler of Kanem-Bornu converts to Islam. West of Bornu, along the northern frontier of Nigeria, is the land of the Hausa people. Well placed to control trade with the forest regions to the south, the Hausa develop a number of small but stable kingdoms, each ruled from a strong walled city.

They are often threatened by larger neighbours Mali and Gao to the west, Bornu to the east.

Discuss The Historical Background Of Nigerian Constitution Dating From 1914 To 1999

As Africa’s most populous country, Nigeria, with an estimated population of million and over ethnic groups, deals with a range of migration issues, from massive internal and regional migration to brain drain and a large, well-educated diaspora in the West mainly the United States and the United Kingdom that it sees as key to future development. Thousands of Nigerians seek refuge and asylum each year, and some also migrate illegally, transiting through North Africa and then crossing the Mediterranean to Europe.

Poverty drives much of this movement: more than 70 percent of Nigerians live below the national poverty line. Also, millions have been internally displaced due to religious and ethnic conflicts — particularly in cities across the north — that have persisted despite the establishment of a democratic government in that followed several years of military rule.

Focus Group Discussion with Research Participants in Nigeria. The introductory chapter captures the historical background of Ogoni problems The current Constitution is not radically different from the some of these treaties remains contested and unresolved to date. Jan Amalgamation of the.

Help us continue to fight human rights abuses. Please give now to support our work. Those who fail to pay are frequently threatened with arrest and physical harm. Far too often these threats are carried out. In the shadows, high-level police officials embezzle staggering sums of public funds meant to cover basic police operations. Those charged with police oversight, discipline, and reform have for years failed to take effective action, thereby reinforcing impunity for police officers of all ranks who regularly perpetrate crimes against the citizens they are mandated to protect.

The Nigeria Police Force, established in , has a long history of engaging in unprofessional, corrupt, and criminal conduct. Many Nigerian police officers conduct themselves in an exemplary manner, working in difficult and often dangerous conditions—some policemen and women were shot and killed in the line of duty in —but for many Nigerians the police force has utterly failed to fulfill its mandate of providing public security.

Indeed, 80 years after its birth, members of the force are viewed more as predators than protectors, and the Nigeria Police Force has become a symbol in Nigeria of unfettered corruption, mismanagement, and abuse. First, the most direct effect of police corruption on ordinary citizens stems from the myriad human rights abuses committed by police officers in the process of extorting money. These abuses range from arbitrary arrest and unlawful detention to threats and acts of violence, including physical and sexual assault, torture, and even extrajudicial killings.

The police frequently extort money from the public at taxi stands, in marketplaces, or while going about their daily lives. However, the most common venue for extortion occurs at police roadblocks, ostensibly put in place to combat crime.


The fact that I am familiar with these efforts especially in the last 12 years is the reason why I did not hesitate to join his numerous well- wishers today. This topic may sound over-ambitious for the time and space which could normally be allowed on this kind of occasion. Without being a political scientist or historian many could justifiably question my intellectual competence to handle the subject s involved in this broad topic.

Be that as it may I feel very strongly about the progress or lack of it so far recoded by the Country in the last 98 years, and I would rely mainly on my personal experiences in the last 50 years and what I learn from professionals like Sam Nda Isiah who try to analyze events and issues concerning the country. It is from the present position we should be able to learn from what went right or wrong in the early part of the journey.

, and the Federal Constitutional Act of January 26, , Federal Law Gazette No. very exceptional circumstances, where the law provides for civil imprisonment [Within a period of 12 months from the date of circulation of the depositary and the history of the Covenant that the said reservation is incompatible with.

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Pos 112: Nigerian Constitutional Development (Representative Government)